Silica supported functionalized ionic liquid CuCl3-IL-SiO2 has been prepared and characterized by FTIR,
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry
(TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. A series of arylamines and aryl ethers were
obtained by Ullmann C-N and C-O coupling of aryl halides with amines and phenols catalyzed by this ionic liquid.
The reactions were carried out with aryl halide (10 mmol), amine or phenol (10 mmol), CuCl3-IL-SiO2 (1.5
mol %), K2CO3 (11 mmol), and CH3CN (20 mL) at reflux conditions. This atom economical protocol affords the
target products in good to high yields. The properties of the heterogeneous catalytic system were studied by tuning
various reaction parameters including amount of the catalyst, influences of solvents and bases. The catalyst
exhibited high efficiency in the Ullmann coupling reactions along with good recycle performance. The salient
features of the present protocol are mild reaction conditions, shorter reaction time, easy recoverability and steady
Keywords: Supported ionic liquid, silica gel, Ullmann reaction, C-N coupling, C-O coupling, heterogeneous catalysis.
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