Graphene-based nanomaterials have drawn abundant interest in various fields such
as biomedicine in recent years. Thanks to the ultra-high surface area of single-layered graphene,
higher molecular loading is obtained. In addition, easy modifications were acquired
because of its ample oxygen-content functional groups. Owing to its excellent physical–
chemical properties, graphene-based nanomaterials have been widely explored as novel nanovectors
for disease theranostics. In this article, we gave a comprehensive review of graphenebased
nanomaterials, including introduction about different members of graphene family
nanomaterials (GFNs), various modifications, toxicity and biomedical applications of graphene-
based derivatives. More attentions were given to phototherapy in this paper. The
mechanisms of photothermal and photodynamic therapy were also offered. Finally, the prospects
and challenges of the graphene-based nanomaterials were discussed in this review.
Keywords: GFNs, modifications, toxicity, biomedical applications, phototherapy, multifunctional nanoformulations.
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