Quality Survival with Fertility after Gynaecological and other Cancers

Author(s): Shakuntala A. Chhabra.

Journal Name: Current Women`s Health Reviews

Volume 12 , Issue 2 , 2016

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Abstract:

Introduction: Earlier, diagnosis of cancer ultimately led to death but now with complex therapies, not only many survive, but they have quality life too. Even preservation of fertility is possible. In addition to this, with early diagnosis, complete cure is possible.

Objectives: To look into the existing evidence, challenges and possibilities.

Methodology: Simple review of literature was done with the help of various search engines, Pubmed, Google, Uptodate and other databases to evaluate the relevant studies, reviews and short commentaries to get information as per the objectives.

Evidence: Because of long-term effects of various cancers and their therapies, problems like quality of life, sexuality and fertility are the real concerns. Gonadal dysfunction is common, especially in gynaecological cancers and their therapies. Germ cell tumors of ovary are most common in young girls but with conservative surgery and chemotherapy the results are excellent. Same is true even for stage I epithelial ovarian cancers. Conservative therapies for cervical cancer, conization, simple / radical trachelectomy can do wonders. Endometrial cancer usually occurs after menopause, and there are no standard recommendations for conservative management, which is possible in younger women. Choriocarcinoma is highly malignant but has high cure rate too. So, quality survival is possible. Studies with Breast cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma have also revealed menstrual function resumption after chemotherapy. Presurgery assessment and close follow-up are necessary. Side effects of radiochemotherapy are real. Effects are drug, dose, and age dependent with possibilities of infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Gonadotoxic effects may cause early menopause. Challenges increase if cancer occurs during pregnancy.

Preventive Possibilities and Conclusion: Mission of any cancer therapy needs to be quality long life, preservation of pregnancy prospects: natural or assisted. Prepubertal ovary is least susceptible to gonadotoxicity with chances of better reproductive life. Ovarian transposition / shielding or transplantation is possible. Ovarian tissue rather than oocyte or embryo cryopreservation is better. Early diagnosis and safe therapy can do miracles for women who are diagnosed with cancer. Conservative surgery, safe chemotherapy and focused radiation can reduce gonadotoxicity and preserve fertility. Multidisciplinary treatments are essential. Role of psychotherapy is important. For quality survival with reduced risk of cardiac, renal, neurological problems, bone osteoporosis and also for preservation of fertility, therapy needs proper planning for all cancers.

Keywords: Cancers, survival, fertility preservation, quality life.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2016
Page: [115 - 125]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1573404812666161019113332
Price: $58

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