Efforts to develop and refine percutaneous approaches to cardiac valve repair and replacement have
advanced rapidly over the past several years, having exceeded even the most optimistic expectations. New innovations
have been predominantly directed toward the most frequent form of valvular heart disease (VHD) in the
industrialized world; aortic stenosis (AS). Approximately 250,000 transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
procedures have been done so far addressing this significant medical need.
Because of the predominance of degenerative etiologies, the prevalence of VHD increases markedly in population
above the age of 65 years, in particular with regard to severe AS. As the populations of the industrialized countries
continue to be older, the need for less invasive and safer methods of treating severe AS will continue to
In this review we provide comprehensive and up-to-date overview of TAVI in current clinical practice. We have
also addressed dilemmas and unanswered questions related to TAVI procedures in different groups of patients
and highlighted opportunities and trends related to future TAVI implementation.