Introduction: This overview is aimed at reevaluating fundamental approaches of current
MS therapies with focus being placed on their targeted underlying immune, molecular and cellular
mechanisms. Currently used therapies are discussed in regard to their mechanisms of action, clinical
accomplishments and unwanted side effects and complications. Special emphasis is given to the current
first generation Disease Modifying Therapies (DMT) and their actions at immune mechanisms of
disease. Effects of DMT on CD4+Th1 cells and their associated cytokines and signaling pathways are
discussed in more detail.
Conclusion: Attention is paid to emerging role of a CD4 T cell chemotactic cytokine, IL-16 in regulation
of relapsing MS and its model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Immune
mechanisms mediated by IL-16 are critically evaluated in the context of mechanisms of DMT and its
potential as prospective MS therapy. In relation to clinical assessment of therapy, existing and prospective
molecular biomarkers are highlighted and discussed where applicable.
Keywords: EAE, IFN-β, IL-16, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Therapy, Central Nervous System (CNS).
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