Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Review of the Evidence
Pp. 152-169 (18)
Acute ischemic stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO) is a
devastating condition resulting in death and disability in a high proportion of patients.
Over the last 2 decades, we have witnessed a tremendous progress in the treatment of
this disease. In fact, from an observational and mostly supportive care we are now in
the era of acute endovascular intervention.
The first step in the right direction was the NIH/NINDS intravenous (IV) tissue
plasminogen activator (tPA) trial. The trial introduced the concept of time-sensitive
intervention in acute ischemic stroke. Subsequently, the endovascular approach was
pioneered as treatment for this condition. However, 3 clinical randomized trials
SYNTHESIS Expansion, IMS III and MR RESCUE failed to demonstrate superiority
of the endovascular approach over standard IV tPA therapy. There were several
drawbacks in these trials including i) not always demonstration of a LVO ii) long time
to intervention and iii) most importantly, use of first generation thrombectomy devices.
In fact, while these trials were ongoing, retrievable stents in SWIFT and TREVO 1 and
2 showed to be superior to first generation thrombectomy devices.
Using latest generation technology, MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, EXTEND IA, SWIFTPRIME
and REVASCAT, 5 multicenter, controlled, randomized, clinical trials showed
overwhelming superiority of the endovascular approach over medical management for
Ischemic stroke, Randomized clinical trials, SOLITAIRE stent
Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute and Neuroscience Center Baptist Hospital, Miami, FL, USA.