Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a leading public health and clinical challenge worldwide. MetS
represents a group of interrelated risk factors that predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes
mellitus (DM). Its prevalence ranges between 10 and 84%, depending on the geographic region, urban or
rural environment, individual demographic characteristics of the population studied (sex, age, racial and
ethnic origin), as well as the criteria used to define MetS. Persons with MetS have higher mortality rate
when compared with people without MetS, primarily caused by progressive atherosclerosis, accelerated
by pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulation components of MetS. Considering the high prevalence of metabolic
disorders (glucose metabolism disorder, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity etc.), preventive
healthcare should focus on changing lifestyle in order to reduce obesity and increase physical activity.
This narrative review considers the available evidence from clinical and experimental studies dealing with
MetS, and current treatment options for patients with insulin resistance and MetS.