Current Medicinal Chemistry

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge


Sex Impact on Biomarkers, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Author(s): Flavia Franconi, Ilaria Campesi.


Sex is one of several factors influencing pharmacological responses, but research on its effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, although emerging remarkably, remains poor and contains many methodological issues. In this review, the current state of knowledge about sex differences in pharmacokinetics and some hints to pharmacogenomics were evaluated. Moreover, considering that many pharmacological responses are monitored through biomarkers, the influence of sex on some biomarkers has been reported. Finally, we report sex differences in pharmacodynamics, particularly analysing opioids and their use during pregnancy, labor and breastfeeding. In conclusion, a more precise sex- and genderbased approach appears necessary to achieve more evidence-based therapy in men and women.

Keywords: Sex differences, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, biomarkers, opioids, pregnancy.

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Article Details

Year: 2017
Page: [2561 - 2575]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/0929867323666161003124616
Price: $58