Background: Few studies assessed gender disparity in lipid goal attainment in the Arabian
Gulf. Hence, we estimated gender gaps in lipid target achievements among patients at high and very high
atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the
undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS).
Methods: The study (conducted between November 22, 2009 and July 7, 2010) included 4,384 patients
(18 years) on lipid lowering drugs at high and very ASCVD risk status from outpatient clinics of 177
specialists and primary care physicians in 6 Arabian Gulf countries.
Results: The overall mean age was 57±11 years and 40% (n=1763) were women. Women were more
likely to have diabetes mellitus (84 vs 71%; p <0.001) and metabolic syndrome (49 vs 35%; p <0.001)
compared with males. Women were less likely to achieve their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC)
(28 vs 32%; p = 0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (42 vs 50%; p <0.001), and
apolipoprotein B (Apo B) (38 vs 42%; p = 0.015) targets compared with men. In the very high ASCVD
risk cohort, women were significantly less likely to achieve their LDL-C (20 vs 30%; p <0.001), non-
HDL-C (34 vs 39%; p = 0.001) and Apo B (34 vs 41%; p <0.001) therapeutic targets compared with men.
Conclusion: Women in the Arabian Gulf were less likely to achieve their lipid targets than men. The
difference was more significant in the very high ASCVD risk group.