Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most deadly form of liver cancer.
Chronic hepatitis and subsequent liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are the major causes of HCC. HBV infection
results not only in HCC but also extra-hepatic cancers. However, the importance and approaches
for HCC screening in HBV infected individuals, the risk factors of HCC, the possible
mechanisms leading to HCC and the potential therapeutic approaches of HBV-related HCC have
less been systematic reviewed.
Methods: In this study, we reviewed the screening, risk, new biomarker, mechanism and therapeutic
of HBV-related HCC.
Results: Serum AFP should be used for the HCC screening in CHB patients. Higher HBV viral load is
associated with increased risk of HCC. HBV genotype and genetic polymorphism contribute to the risk
of HCC.Ku86, Ku86 antibody, miR-18a, miR-122 and miR-150 may be reliable markers of HBVrelated
HCC. MicroRNAs and HBx play a key role in HBV-related HCC. Two types of drugs, conventional
interferon (IFN), and nucleoside analogs (NAs), have recently become available for the treatment
of CHB infection. However, treatment guidelines for these patients have not yet established.
Conclusion: A comprehensive understanding of how HBV infection causes HCC is of great importance
in developing more effective antiviral therapy and prevention of late stage consequences such as
cirrhosis and HCC. Regular screening in HBV infected individuals is a practically useful approach in
reducing the HCC incidence in these patients. More reliable markers for HCC early detection should be
explored. Combining IFNs and NAs with other curative approaches have superior benefits in preventing