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Intestinal Dysbiosis, Gut Hyperpermeability and Bacterial Translocation: Missing Links Between Depression, Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

Author(s): Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, George Anderson, Marco Solmi, Yolanda Sanz, Michael Berk, Cristiano A. Köhler, André F. Carvalho.

Abstract:

The comorbid prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with obesity and type II diabetes mellitus reflects the existence of a subset of individuals with a complex common pathophysiology and overlapping risk factors. Such comorbid disease presentations imply a number of difficulties, including: decreased treatment responsivity and adherence; altered glycemic control and increased risk of wider medical complications. A number of factors link MDD to metabolic-associated disorders, including: higher rates of shared risk factors such as poor diet and physical inactivity and biological elements including increased inflammation; insulin resistance; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and mitochondrial dysfunction. All of these biological factors have been extensively investigated in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as MDD. In this review, we aim to: (1) overview the epidemiological links between MDD, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; (2) discuss the role of synergistic neurotoxic effects in MDD comorbid with obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; (3) review evidence of intestinal dysbiosis, leaky gut and increased bacterial translocation, in the pathophysiology of MDD, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; and (4) propose a model in which the gut-brain axis could play a pivotal role in the comorbidity of these disorders.

Keywords: Microbiome, gut, probiotics, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, major depressive disorder, psychiatry.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 40
Year: 2016
Page: [6087 - 6106]
Pages: 20
DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160922165706
Price: $58