Exosomes are small vesicles comprised of a lipid bilayer containing
various proteins, RNAs and bioactive lipids. They act as intercellular messengers that
give the ability to communicate between both cells of the same type and other cell
types. They are released by healthy cells, both constitutively and upon cell activation
and play an important role in immune system function. Exosomes are essential for
healthy physiological conditions, however under pathological circumstances, they act
to potentiate cellular stress and damage. This review explores the characteristics,
biogenesis, role(s) in the pathogenesis of diseases and role(s) in progression of cancer
of these nano-sized messages-in-a-vesicle: exosomes.
Keywords: Cancer exosomes, exosome pathology, exosome physiology, exosomes.
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