Tuberculosis (TB) is a primordial infectious disease that mainly affects the lungs. M. tuberculosis
(Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is the etiological agent of TB and currently more than one-third
of the world population is suffering from TB. For the treatment of TB, administration of multiple antibiotics
such as isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol is required for a long period of time
to kill bacteria. However, antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis
(MDR-TB) infections. World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a novel strategy
called DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course), in which specific combination of anti-TB
drugs is given to control TB. In this review article we have focused on the comprehensive management
of TB and have provided the valuable information about first and second line anti-TB drugs, DOTS
and novel drug delivery systems to be used against M. tuberculosis. Important aspects related to new
anti-TB drugs and vaccines in various stages of clinical development are also covered in this article.
Keywords: BCG, DOTS, isoniazid, mycobacterium tuberculosis, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, WHO.
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