Genetics Findings in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Pp. 3-17 (15)
Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro-Bicudo
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by
persistent and pervasive symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
ADHD is known as a ‘complex trait’ because of a phenotype with a genetic etiology
that is composed of a multitude of susceptibility genes, each contributing only a small
magnitude of the overall risk for the disorder. As so, this chapter aimed to establish a
short review of the literature regarding to the genetics findings of ADHD. It is now well
established that ADHD runs in families and is strongly genetically influenced. Also,
studies have indicated a high heritability of ADHD (between 60% and 91%). Recent
studies as the whole genome association (WGA) has showed an implicating specific
susceptibility genes for ADHD. Regarding the genes in ADHD, studies have showed
some candidate gene, related with the dopamine and serotonin genes. Also, it is
important to highlight that the aetiology of ADHD, like all complex disorders, is not
entirely explained by genes; environmental factors also contribute. So, in conclusion, all
of the associated gene variants have been of small effect and in the future there will be
increasing interest in examining the risk effects of multiple genes (gene-gene
interaction) and interaction with environmental risk factors.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Genes, Genotype, Heredity,
Craniofacial Anomalies Rehabilitation Hospital, São Paulo University USP- Bauru - São Paulo- Brazil.