Much attention has been paid to coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a treatment for cardiovascular and neurological
diseases because of the antioxidant activity since 1959. CoQ10 is non-toxic. It has a wide range of health
effects and is a popular commercial supplement. Despite these advantages, CoQ10 faces synthetic challenges and
low yield. The synthesis of CoQ10 is very difficult. Researchers have described several semi-synthetic strategies.
This review offers a detailed discussion of recent advances in the semi-synthesis of CoQ10. Four strategies are
presented including side chain direct introduction, side chain extension, carbon addition and Diels-Alder
rearrangement. Most semi-synthetic strategies employ side chain extension to synthesize CoQ10 because it
increases the stereoselectivity and coupling efficiency of the side chain configuration. Side chain extension
greatly improves the utilization of solanesol and reduces cost. This article presents the latest details in CoQ10
Keywords: CoQ10, semi-synthesis, solanesol, side chain direct introduction, side chain extension, carbon addition, Diels-Alder rearrangement.
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