The age of initiation and the rate of progression of atherosclerosis vary markedly among
individuals and have been difficult to predict with traditional cardiovascular risk assessment models.
Although these risk models provide good discrimination and calibration in certain populations, cardiovascular
disease (CVD) risk may not be accurately estimated in low- and intermediate risk individuals.
Therefore, imaging techniques such as Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), Coronary Artery Calcium
score (CAC), carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT), flow mediated dilation (FMD) and Positron
Emission Tomography (PET) have been developed and used to reclassify these individuals. In
the present article we review the role of the most commonly used imaging techniques for CVD risk
Keywords: Subclinical atherosclerosis, calcium score, intima-media thickness.
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