Background: Assessments of the residual effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
(MDMA) are typically restricted to experimental studies. The current observational
study aimed to investigate the immediate and delayed cognitive, affective and somatic effects
of recreational MDMA and other drug use among adults.
Method: Thirty-eight adults (26 males and 12 females) aged 19-55 years (mean age 32.1
years) who attended a private recreational event in the Netherlands participated in this study.
Demographics and recreational drug use history was recorded at baseline. Participants were
categorized a priori into groups based on self-reported drug use at the event and were classified
as (1) MDMA and other drug use (N=13, MDMA group), (2) drug use other than
MDMA (N=11, DRUGS group), and (3) alcohol only (N=14, ALCOHOL group). Participants
completed a daily online survey for one week post drug use, and a past week mood assessment
using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) at day7 and day 30 post-drug use.
Results: Compared to baseline, the MDMA group reported greater complaints one day post
drug use, and some symptoms persisted up to four days. Compared to the MDMA group, the
DRUGS group reported greater physical symptoms at one-day post drug ingestion, with some
effects present at day 3 post-drug use. No past-week mood differences were detected between
groups at day 7 or day 30.
Conclusion: Those who consumed MDMA reported greater somatic complaints on day 1,
and symptoms of reduced energy, increased fatigue, and weakness persisted up to four days