The hyaline cartilage is an avascular, aneural and alymphatic tissue with a limited ability to repair
itself. When the cartilage is exposed to some kind of injury, it usually triggers osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent and
degenerative joint disease closely related to aging. OA is both complex and multifactorial, and is the most common
form of arthritis, being positioned as a major cause of pain and dysfunction in the world. In addition, high
OA prevalence can greatly affect work capacity, making this disease a significant social problem, therefore, its
prevention and treatment becomes a priority. At this time, there are numerous therapeutic strategies available to
improve hyaline cartilage repair by using chondrocytes or mesenchymal cells, but neither is effective enough to
generate functional and durable tissue reparation over time. In OA, chondrocytes have an aberrant gene expression
and phenotype, resulting in a loss of balance between anabolic and catabolic processes. Environmental influences
such as radiation, infection, smoking, nutrients, toxins and stress can affect gene expression patterns, which
may constitute risk factors for various chronic and degenerative diseases, such as OA. In addition, considerable
evidence shows that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in OA chondrogenesis and pathogenesis.
Natural plant-derived products such as polyphenols, which are secondary metabolites considered to have potential
activity to block inflammation in several degenerative diseases, can stimulate epigenetic modifications, and may
provide new therapeutic targets and cost-effective treatments. This review aims to present various polyphenolbased
therapies currently used for the treatment of several progressive diseases, including OA.