Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with increased
hospital discharge rates, causing a serious public health issue and an economic burden. Recent demographic transitions,
including ageing of the population, low fertility, urbanization and shift towards unhealthy behaviours have resulted in an
increase in the prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders (i.e. hypertension, obesity, diabetes). According to the reports of
international organisations, a substantial number of heart attacks could have been prevented through lifestyle modifications
(i.e. diet, physical activity, smoking cessation). Regarding secondary prevention, it is well documented that effective
cardiovascular rehabilitation requires a multidisciplinary approach, including medical treatment, as well as lifestyle changes.
Diet has been recognised as one of the most important modifiable and preventable factors, being undoubtedly beneficial
in primary prevention, as well as among cardiac patients. However, studies among CVD patients are scarce, and with
inconclusive results. The most studied dietary pattern is the Mediterranean-type diet, with several observational studies
and clinical trials demonstrating its protective role against recurrent cardiac events, whereas evidence regarding other
well-known models, including Western-type, Vegetarian, Asian-type and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
(DASH) diet, are more limited. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the most prevalent dietary patterns
and their role in the secondary CVD prevention and management.