Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) accounts for a significant proportion of the
morbidity and mortality in the United States. CKD is defined as glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
<60ml/min/1.73m2 or clear evidence of renal damage from biopsy. All-cause cardiovascular risk increases
with decreasing GFR. Clinically, detection of CKD is through changes in creatinine clearance
which estimates GFR, an indicator of kidney function. We reviewed conventional and nonconventional
cardiovascular risk factors associated with CKD. Clinically, we reviewed the status of
statins as a treatment option for CKD-induced dyslipidemia.
Objective: CKD has dramatic consequences on cardiovascular risk profile due to a complex pathophysiologic response to
declining kidney function. In this review, we explored new, more accurate methods of detecting decreasing kidney function,
discerned risk factors for the development of cardiovascular events, and examined the controversial use of statins for
Results: Detection of declining renal function by monitoring creatinine has been the clinical gold standard, but it substantially
fluctuates with muscle mass, sex, and ethnicity. Newer methods using cystatin C have been at the forefront as the
next substance that will be used for detection of CKD. Traditional and non-traditional risk factors contribute to the cardiovascular
risk profile of patients with declining renal function. Statins, along with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB)s, have been used for renoprotection, but evidence shows only modest
benefits in non-dialysis patients.
Conclusion: Cardio-renal interaction involves multiple risk factors that contribute significantly to the CKD-induced development
of accelerated atherosclerosis, an inflammatory state that causes cardiovascular events.