Background: Global death rate due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is highest as compared
to other ailments. Principal risk factor associated with CVDs is hypertension. Major classes of
current antihypertensive (AHT) therapies include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI),
angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). All these antihypertensive
therapeutic drugs have low oral bioavailability and can induce upper respiratory tract abstraction,
angioedema, reflex tachycardia and extreme hypotensive effect after oral administration which can
cause lethal effects in patients with heart diseases.
Objective: Controlled and targeted release by using antihypertensive nano-medicines can provide better
solution to overcome above-mentioned side effects.
Results: Scientific evolution towards the development of biopolymer based nano-carrier systems has
unlocked new horizons for safe and/or edible nano drug delivery systems. In this article, we have reviewed
in detail various mechanisms of AHT drugs, major draw backs associated with current therapeutic
strategies, and the advantages of AHT nano-medicines over conventional drugs. Furthermore,
recent reports of bio-based nano/micro -carrier systems with different AHT drugs have been analyzed
with their key features. In depth review has been presented for chitosan as a potential carrier of AHT
drugs due to its distinctive properties comprising muco-adhesive attribute, permeation enhancement as
well as its biocompatible and biodegradable nature.
Conclusion: Chitosan based novel AHT nano-ceuticals can improve oral bioavailability, reduce hydrophobicity
and increase the plasma half-life of AHT drugs by their sustained release in lower part of