Current therapeutic drugs for the treatment of bone loss-associated disorders such as osteoporosis
and metastatic bone disease have limited clinical outcomes, namely in terms of efficiency and
sustainability. Given the ageing of population in developed countries and the cumulative costs with
treatment, bone loss-associated disorders represent a major socioeconomic burden worldwide. In this
review, the therapeutic agents targeting bone loss tested in clinical and pre-clinical trials are summarized,
as well as the challenges encountered by clinicians and patients. In an effort to attain costeffective
clinical outcomes, potential cellular and signalling targets are disclosed.
Keywords: Bone loss, therapy, anabolic agents, anti-resorptive agents, clinical trials, osteoclasts, osteoblasts.
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