Graphene: A Comprehensive Review
Aditya D. Ghuge,
Abhay R. Shirode ,
Vilasrao J. Kadam.
Graphene, a one-atom thick, two-dimensional sheets of sp2hybridized carbon atoms packed
in a hexagonal lattice with a Caron-Carbon distance of about 0.142 nm. Its extended honeycomb network
forms the basic building block of other important allotropes; it can be stacked to form 3-Dgraphite,
rolled to form 1-D-nanotubes and wrapped to form 0-D-fullerenes. Long-range π conjugation
in graphene results in its extraordinary thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, which have been
the interest of many theoretical studies and recently became an exciting area for scientists. Graphene is
impermeable to gas and liquids, has excellent thermal conductivity and higher current density in comparison
to other most effective materials. All of its exceptional properties have opened up new avenues
for the use of graphene in nano-devices and nano-systems, which initiated its prominent use as a material
for drug targeting. In addition, several fabrication techniques are outlined, starting from the mechanical
exfoliation of high-quality graphene to the direct growth on silicon carbide or metal substrates
and from the chemical routes utilizing graphene oxide to the newly developed approach at the molecular
level. By this article reviewers intend to emphasize on unique properties, fabrication techniques and updated
applications of graphene. In addition, we discuss about the potential of graphene in drug targeting
in fields of nanotechnology, biomedical engineering and technology and its use for innovations in various
fields such as electronics and photonics.
Keywords: Drug targeting, graphene, honeycomb lattice, nanomaterial, one atom thickness, two-dimensional sheet.
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