MicroRNAs in Neurocognitive Dysfunctions: New Molecular Targets for Pharmacological Treatments?

Author(s): Wissem Deraredj Nadim, Viorel Simion, Helene Benedetti, Chantal Pichon, Patrick Baril, Severine Morisset-Lopez.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2017

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Abstract:

Background: Neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders are multifactorial diseases (i.e., involving neurodevelopmental, genetic, age or environmental factors) characterized by an abnormal development that affects neuronal function and integrity. Recently, an increasing number of studies revealed that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may be involved in the etiology of cognitive disorders as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington‘s diseases, Schizophrenia and Autism spectrum disorders.

Methods: From an extensive search in bibliographic databases of peer-reviewed research literature, we identified relevant published studies related to specific key words such as memory, cognition, neurodegenerative disorders, neurogenesis and miRNA. We then analysed, evaluated and summerized scientific evidences derived from these studies.

Results: We first briefly summarize the basic molecular events involved in memory, a process inherent to cognitive disease, and then describe the role of miRNAs in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and memory. Secondly, we provide an overview of the impact of miRNA dysregulation in the pathogenesis of different neurocognitive disorders, and lastly discuss the feasibility of miRNA-based therapeutics in the treatment of these disorders.

Conclusion: This review highlights the molecular basis of neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders by focusing on the impact of miRNAs dysregulation in these pathological phenotypes. Altogether, the published reports suggest that miRNAs-based therapy could be a viable therapeutic alternative to current treatment options in the future.

Keywords: Cognitive dysfunction, LTP, MicroRNA, neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric disorders, signaling pathways.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2017
Page: [260 - 275]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X14666160709001441
Price: $58

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