Stem Cell Biology: Flies As Models and Examples
Pp. 49-81 (33)
Nahla M. Shoukry, Elham M. Youssef Elabd, Hani S. Hafez and Noha M. Osman
Drosophila is a genus of flies of the family Drosophilidae. It comprises of
1579 described species. Stem cell present in stem cell niche and interacts to regulate
cell fate. Many factors act on embryonic stem cells during embryonic development to
alter gene expression, and induce their proliferation or differentiation for the
development of the fetus or larvae.
Stem cell niches maintain adult stem cells in a quiescent state. After tissue injury, the
surrounding micro-environment induce stem cells to promote either self-renewal or
differentiation to new tissues. Various factors are important to coordinate stem cell
characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as
interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions
between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the
oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the
environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. Ca2+ concentration) and metabolites,
like ATP, are also important. During development, stem cells and niche may induce
each other and alternately maintain each other during adulthood.
Germline stem cell, Niche signaling, Niche morphogenesis, Somatic
stem cell, siRNA.
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, Suez, Egypt.