Background: Heart failure (HF) is characterized by cardiac functional
and structural alterations, progressively leading to clinical symptoms and signs.
Certain neurohormonal systems (i.e. the sympathetic nervous system, the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system and the natriuretic peptide system) as well as interactions
between endothelial, monocytes/macrophages and myocardial cells are
involved in the process.
Methods: The present narrative review discusses the relationships between lipids,
statins and HF.
Results: Lipid metabolism is involved in cardiac function. Inflammation, oxidative
stress, endothelial and platelet dysfunction, activation of neurohormonal systems,
adverse cardiac remodeling, haemodynamic disorders and arrhythmogenesis predispose to HF development
and progression. Statins have been shown to reduce HF incidence possibly via their pleiotropic actions
on the above mentioned mechanisms. Other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors affecting HF prevalence
and outcomes include metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, hyperuricaemia,
epicardial fat and increased arterial stiffness that are improved following statin therapy.
Conclusion: Lipid disorders are involved in HF development and progression. Statins may beneficially affect
these disorders as well as other CV risk factors linked to HF. However, the impact of statins in patients
with established HF has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to unveil potential benefits of statin
therapy (or some statins) in specific groups of HF patients.