Microbial Single-Cell Oils: Precursors of Biofuels and Dietary Supplements
Pp. 322-375 (54)
Vanessa Béligon, Gustavo Molina, Gwendoline Christophe, Christian Larroche, André Lebert and Pierre Fontanille
For centuries, men have used microorganisms for their activities and abilities
to produce metabolites of interest such as antibiotics or pigments. Lipids are now under
the spotlight as applications can be found in several domains. With the growing
awareness of climate change and the depletion of petroleum resources, microbial lipids,
which share similar fatty acids profiles with those of vegetable oils currently used in
biofuels, compete as potential candidates for the development of green biodiesel.
Oleaginous microorganisms can assure this production with substantial productivity,
using various low-cost types of substrates. Lipids formed by microorganisms can also
be interesting from a dietary point of view, as some microorganisms are able to
produce polyunsaturated fatty acids. These PUFAs, such as those belonging to the
omega-3 and omega-6 series, are known for their benefits to human health. The use of
microorganisms represents a promising way to produce PUFAs at lower cost and with a
higher yield. This chapter discusses various potent microorganisms, especially bacteria
and fungi, for single-cell oils production designed either for the energy field or the
dietary domain, the metabolic ways involved, the culture conditions and the
downstream processes of manufacturing.
Alpha-linolenic acid, Arachidonic acid, Biodiesel, Biofuel, Dietary
supplement, Docosahexaenoic acid, Edible oil, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Essential
fatty acid, Fatty acid, Fungi, Gamma-linolenic acid, Linoleic acid, Lipid,
Oleaginous yeast, Omega-3 series, Omega-6 series, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid,
Transesterification, Vegetable oil.
Axe Génie des Procédés, Energétique et Biosystémes, Institut Pascal, UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS/IFMA. 24, avenue des Landais, BP 20206, 63174 Aubiére cedex, France.