Vitamins and Nutraceuticals
Pp. 207-254 (48)
Júlio C. de Carvalho, Elia N. M. Ramírez, Ana M. O. Finco, Luis D. G. Mamani, Antônio I. Magalhães, Luis A. J. Letti and Carlos R. Soccol
Vitamins are a class of molecules that play an essential role in metabolism.
In order to enhance or to complete the nutritional value of a food, it is sometimes,
necessary to add vitamins during processing. Most vitamins may be produced by
chemical synthesis, but the natural sources are both more appealing to the consumer
and, sometimes, more bioavailable. Natural and genetically modified microorganisms
are a possible alternative to produce vitamins. Another broad class of molecules,
nutraceuticals, includes substances which are not essential in diets, but which may have
beneficial roles besides that of supplying building blocks, energy, coenzymes and
minerals for the body. This chapter presents both the classes of compounds, vitamins
and nutraceuticals, their use in processed food, and focuses on the classical and
microbial sources of vitamins and then role in the human body, and some
representative nutraceuticals. Aminoacids, organic acids, prebiotics, polyunsaturated
oils, hydrocolloids, enzymes and other molecules which are bioactive or nutritionally
important, but pertinent to other classes of additives, are not discussed in this chapter.
Antioxidant, Coenzymes, Fermentation, Metabolism.
Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Cx Postal 19011, ACF Centro Politécnico, 81531-990 Curitiba, Brazil.