The Reasons of Thermal Runaway in Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

Author(s): N. E. Galushkin, N. N. Yazvinskaya, D. N. Galushkin, I. A. Galushkina.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Engineering

Volume 11 , Issue 1 , 2017

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Abstract:

Background: A thermal runaway phenomenon occurs in batteries of all the electrochemical systems. In the case of the thermal runaway occurrence, a battery heats up sharply and afterwards a battery body inflammation is possible followed by an explosion. In this case inevitably, a system contained the battery goes unserviceable.

Objective: The goal of this work is to review the most important results received on thermal runaway by the present moment.

Results: It has been established experimentally that a probability of a thermal runaway in the nickel-cadmium accumulators KSX-25 grows with an increase of a constant-voltage charge as well as of an environmental temperature and an accumulator time in service. It was shown on the basis of charge cur-rent, terminal voltage, and change in battery temperature that during thermal runaway, the observed changes cannot be explained by the self-acceleration of known reactions (due to overheating), battery charging and electrolyte decomposition. The observed changes can only be explained if we assume, that the thermal runaway is associated with a powerful electrochemical reaction going within the battery with a terminal voltage approximately 0.55 V. It is shown that the recombination reaction of atomic hydrogen accumulated in the electrodes is exothermic thermal runaway reaction in alkaline batteries.

Conclusion: New mechanism of thermal runaway in Ni-Cd batteries, which explains all the experimental data known currently is proposed. Based on the proposed mechanism received patents for a method of diagnosing a predisposition of batteries to thermal runaway.

Keywords: Battery, dendrites, exothermic reaction, hydrogen accumulation, nickel-cadmium, thermal runaway.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 11
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2017
Page: [4 - 9]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1872212110666160624081809
Price: $58

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