The Realization of the Brain-Gut Interactions with Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Glucocorticoids

Author(s): Ludmila Filaretova , Tatiana Bagaeva .

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 14 , Issue 8 , 2016

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Abstract:

Background: The brain and the gut interact bi-directionally through the brain-gut axis. The interaction is mediated by the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. The first brilliant demonstration of the brain-gut interactions was the cephalic phase of gastric and pancreatic secretion discovered by Ivan Pavlov, the first physiologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904. This review aims to identify the HPA system as a key hormonal branch of the brain-gut axis in stress.

Methods: We first outlined main components of the brain-gut axis and then focused on the HPA system as a key hormonal branch of the brain-gut axis in stress. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature using a focused review question.

Results: Seventy-one articles were included in the review, the eleventh of them were articles of Filaretova L. and co-authors. We will discuss in our articles how an endocrinological approach to gastroenterological field can advance our understanding of the HPA axis role in regulation of gastric mucosal integrity and uncover new findings. According to these findings activation of the HPA system is gastroprotective component of the brain-gut axis in stress but not ulcerogenic one as it was generally accepted. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids are important natural players provided gastroprotection. The results suggest that an initial action of endogenous glucocorticoids, including stress- and CRF-produced ones, as well as exogenous glucocorticoids, even used at pharmacological doses, is physiological gastroprotective. Prolongation of the hormonal action may lead to the transformation of gastroprotective hormonal effect to proulcerogenic one.

Conclusion: The findings of this review demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids contribute to the realization of the brain-gut interactions and that activation of the HPA system is gastroprotective component of this interaction in stress.

Keywords: Brain-gut axis, corticotropin-releasing factor, gastric injury, gastric mucosa, gastroprotection, glucocorticoids, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, stress.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2016
Page: [876 - 881]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X14666160614094234
Price: $58

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