Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are one of the widely used nanoparticles with
spectrum of application, in the areas like daily care products, sensors, antibacterial agents, and
biomedical sector. With extensive application the risk of exposure at occupational and consumer
level also increases. Huge amount of data are available on the biointeraction of ZnO
NPs. Though the toxicity of ZnO NPs is attributed to particle dissolution inside the cellular
compartments and their ability to generate the reactive oxygen species, the ambiguity prevails
over the exact mechanism of toxicity. The in vivo studies on different animal models and humans
suggest different level of toxicity in these organisms. However the synthetic route,
physiochemical properties of the nanoparticle, mode of exposure and nature of the test system
often influences these studies. Hence the study results vary and sometimes contradict on one
another. The current review focuses on the interaction of ZnO NPs with different organ systems.
It also points to the factors to be considered while undertaking such studies in order to
ensure reliability of the results.
Keywords: ZnO nanoparticle, organ toxicity, ROS, neurotoxicity, immune response.
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