Extracellular Matrix in Atherosclerosis: Hyaluronan and Proteoglycans Insights

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Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 23 , Issue 26 , 2016

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Abstract:

Background: Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the blood vessel wall, is the most common cause of cardiovascular pathologies. Hyaluronan, the major polysaccharide involved in this process, plays a pivotal role acting as a modulator of all inflammatory stages, affecting the behavior of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

Objective: The inflammatory condition is the main reason of the increased deposition of extracellular matrix, that in turn, traps lipoproteins and inflammatory/growth factors from the circulation within the vessel wall and thicken the arterial wall. Therefore, this chronic condition that continuously affects the arterial walls in a specific area causes a severe remodeling of the tissue architecture and a drastic change in the resident cell behavior.

Methods: Because of the great complexity of the extracellular matrix in the arterial wall, we investigate the modification in the different layers of the vessels with a particular attention to hyaluronan and proteoglycans and to the events that affects their normal turnover.

Results: Hyaluronan, the major polysaccharide involved in this process, plays a pivotal role acting as a modulator of all inflammatory stages, affecting the behavior of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Moreover, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans had been shown to change during the lesion progression, and to possess the chemical features essential for lipid retention, immune system activation, smooth cells proliferation and macrophages recruitment.

Conclusion: The ECM characteristics should be investigated in order to understand their prevention potentials as well as their negative impact on the onset of the disease.

Keywords: Hyaluronan, atherosclerosis, endothelium, tunica intima, proteoglycans.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 26
Year: 2016
Page: [2958 - 2971]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/0929867323666160607104602
Price: $58

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