Valuable Analytical Tools in Analysis of Honeybee Plant-Derived Compounds: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Pp. 150-195 (46)
Clementina M.M. Santos and Artur M.S. Silva
Over the past fifty years, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
proved to be a powerful tool in the structural characterisation of bioactive compounds
from natural sources. In this chapter we cover the basic theory behind each NMR
technique used to determine the structure of several families of compounds (e.g.
carbohydrates, phenolics and sesquiterpenoids) present in honey and propolis. We also
provide basic information how 1D and 2D NMR techniques can help in the structure
establishment of honeybee constituents. The 1H and 13C NMR data of several of these
constituents are compiled and described, being some of them used as botanical and
geographical markers. In the case of propolis, a list of compounds identified by NMR is
presented. A basic overview in quantitative NMR determinations and in NMR coupled
to chemometric methodologies highlights their use to detect honey adulteration and
assign their authenticity.
Adulteration, Authenticity, Botanical marker, 13C NMR, COSY,
DEPT, DOSY, Geographical marker, HMBC, HMQC, 1H NMR, Honeybee,
HSQC, Natural products, NMR spectroscopy, NOESY, Propolis, ROESY,
Structure elucidation, TOCSY.
Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.