Enormous progress in the field of vaccine development has moved the area
from traditional vaccines using whole microorganisms to subunit vaccines containing
only purified or modified antigenic proteins. The low immunogenic potentials of
subunit vaccines compared to live attenuated pathogens, have prompted the research
towards developing new adjuvants with the ability to mimic and enhance the innate
and adaptive immune responses. Novel adjuvants formulations based on the discovery
of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the main class of innate immunity sensors
have recently gained interest. The major family of PRRs called Toll-like receptors
(TLRs), which are expressed by a variety of cells and capable to induce innate
immune responses and effective stimulation of transition from innate immune
responses to adaptive immune responses. PRR ligands of natural and synthetic origin have been evaluated
as potential adjuvants in a variety of applications including vaccine formulations. Apart from this, for
generating effective and protective immune responses, targeted delivery of vaccine antigens along with
PRR agonists to the desired cells is of great importance. New strategy of delivering vaccine antigens
along with adjuvants using proper nano-sized materials has gained much attention during the recent years.
Here we review the recent advances regarding PRR-based nano-adjuvants developments, focusing on
current nano-materials based delivery system and their applications in biomedical sciences.
Keywords: Adjuvants, delivery vehicles, nano-materials, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), vaccine.
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