The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids are well-known since ancient years. Growing evidence
exist on endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulation related with human tumorigenesis.
Taking into account the substantial role of ECS on immune cell regulation, the present review is
aimed to summarize the emerging evidence concerning cannabinoid receptor (CBR) expression
and cannabinoid ligand effects on haematological malignancies.
Most of cannabinoid actions, mainly CB2R-mediated against haematopoietic malignant cells, seem
promising, as inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis and paraptosis induction have been
documented. Cannabinoid ligands appear to activate rudimentary pathways for cell survival, such
as ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, and to induce caspase synthesis, in vitro. Such data are strongly
recommended to be confirmed by in vivo experiments with emphasis on cannabinoid ligands’
bioavailability and phytocannabinoid psychotropic properties. The preliminary antitumoral ECS
effects and their relative lack of important side effects render ECS a promising therapeutic target
for the treatment of haematological malignancies.