Multiple Sclerosis Drug Therapy: From the Classical Pharmaceutical Down to Cellular and Molecular Approach
Pp. 3-113 (111)
Roberta Rigolio, Elisa Ballarini, Maria Grimoldi, Margherita Gardinetti and Gabriele Di Sante
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central
nervous system (CNS) affecting over 2.000.000 individuals around the world.
Although MS etiopathogenesis is still not completely defined environmental factor
exposure and genetic background are relevant in disease development. Moreover, MS
shows heterogeneous onset and course so that different disease forms can be described
which are all characterized by motor and/or sensory and even cognitive impairment.
Two steps in the disease progression can be described. First MS lesions are originated
by the activated immune system which recognizes CNS myelin as a foreign element
thus leading to the formation of demyelinated plaques that evolve into axonal damage
and subsequent neurodegeneration over the time.
Since the beginning MS therapy has been focused on counteracting immune system
action. Nevertheless, besides the immunosuppressive/immunomodulating drugs such as
Glatiramer acetate, Beta-interferons and steroids, the advance in the comprehension of
the immune-mediated mechanisms has sustained the development and use of molecular and cellular-focused approaches, e.g. monoclonal antibodies and stem cells.
At the same time very few weapons are specifically available for fighting MS
We report an overview on MS and both old and new therapeutic approaches to the
Alemtuzumab, Anti-Lingo-1 antibody, Daclizumab, Diseasemodifying
drugs, Ethiopathology, Helminthes, Histopathology, Immune system,
Masinitib mesylate, Monoclonal antibodies, MOR103, Multiple Sclerosis,
Ocrelizumab, Ofatumumab, Remyelination strategies, Rituximab, Secukinumab,
Stem cells, Tabalumab, Tolerogenic vaccines, Vitamin D.
Experimental Neurology Unit, School of Medicine and Surgery, Universita Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, 20900 Monza, Italy.