Background: Although various advanced FIB processing methods for
the fabrication of 3D nanostructures have been successfully developed by many
researchers, the FIB milling has an unavoidable result in terms of the implantation
of ion source materials and the formation of damaged layer at the near surface.
Understanding the ion-solid interactions physics provides a unique way to control
the FIB produced defects in terms of their shape and location.
Methods: We have carefully selected peer-reviewed papers which mainly focusing
on the review questions of this paper. A deductive content analysis method was
used to analyse the methods, findings and conclusions of these papers. Based on
their research methods, we classify their works in different groups. The theory of
ion-matter interaction and the previous investigation on ion-induced damage in diamond were reviewed
Results: The previous research work has provided a systematic analysis of ion-induced damage in
diamond. Both experimental and simulation methods have been developed to understand the damage
process. The damaged layers created in FIB processing process can significantly degrade/alter the
device performance and limit the applications of FIB nanofabrication technique. There are still challenges
involved in fabricating large, flat, and uniform TEM samples in undoped non-conductive
Conclusions: The post-facto-observation leaves a gap in understanding the formation process of ioninduced
damage, forcing the use of assumptions. In contrast, MD simulations of ion bombardment
have shed much light on ion beam mixing for decades. These activities make it an interesting and
important task to understand what the fundamental effects of energetic particles on matter are.