Dabigatran Etexilate Reduces Thrombin-Induced Inflammation and Thrombus Formation in Experimental Ischemic Stroke

Author(s): Melanie Dittmeier, Kathrin Wassmuth, Michael K. Schuhmann, Peter Kraft, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Felix Fluri.

Journal Name: Current Neurovascular Research

Volume 13 , Issue 3 , 2016

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Abstract:

Dabigatran etexilate (DE), a direct-acting, oral inhibitor of thrombin, significantly reduces the risk of stroke compared with traditional anticoagulants, without increasing the risk of major bleeding. However, studies on the fate of cerebral tissue after ischemic stroke in patients receiving DE are sparse and the role of dabigatran-mediated reduction of thrombin in this context has not yet been investigated. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment with DE reduces thrombin-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanisms and leakage of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following ischemic stroke in rats. Male Wistar rats received DE (15 mg/kg) or a vehicle solution 1 hour before transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 minutes. Infarct volume, neurologic outcome and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were determined after tMCAO. Thrombin generation was indirectly assessed by measuring thrombin/antithrombin III complex. Microvascular patency was evaluated histologically. Cytokine expression and immunoreactivity of cluster of differentiation (CD) 68 were examined to characterize inflammatory processes after pretreatment with DE. BBB integrity was examined by quantifying brain edema. Rats given DE revealed a significant reduction in infarct size without an increase in ICH and significant recovery of neurologic deficits compared to controls. Administration of DE decreased thrombin generation and thrombus formation, dampened the CD68-immunoreactivity and attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the cerebral parenchyma ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. BBB permeability was unaltered following treatment with DE. In summary, prophylactic anticoagulation with DE improves stroke outcome by reducing thrombin-induced inflammation and thrombus formation without increasing the rate of ICH.

Keywords: tMCAO, experimental stroke, dabigatran, thrombin, hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral inflammation.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 13
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2016
Page: [199 - 206]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1567202613666160517122605
Price: $58

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