Three-dimensional Ultrasound in Endometrial Cancer and Polyps
Pp. 283-293 (11)
Juan Luis Alcazar
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in
developed countries. On the other hand, endometrial polyps constitute the most
common endometrial pathology both in pre- and postmenopausal women. Ultrasound
has been extensively used for evaluating women with suspected or already known
endometrial cancer and for diagnosing endometrial polyps. Three-dimensional
ultrasound (3DUS) was introduced into clinical practice 15 years ago. This technology
allows unique ways for assessing the uterus and the endometrium, such as uterine and
endometrial volume, calculation virtual navigation, multiplanar display, tomographic
ultrasound imaging (TUI) and volume contrast imaging (VCI), as well as for assessing
endometrial vascularization, namely 3D power Doppler vascular assessment using 3D
vascular network reconstruction and the so-called 3D derived vascular indices.
Additionally, three-dimensional sonohysterography has been proposed to be used for a
better assessment of the uterine cavity. Some studies have evaluated the role of 3DUS
for assessing endometrial cancer, either as a diagnostic method in women with
postmenopausal bleeding or for assessing myometrial infiltration. In this chapter we
shall review current evidence and data about the use of 3DUS for diagnosing
endometrial cancer and polyps, its use for assessing myometrial infiltration and also the
correlation of 3DUS parameters with tumor characteristics.
Endometrial cancer, Polyps, Postmenopausal bleeding, 3D power
Doppler, Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis, Tomographic Ultrasound
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.