Uterine Anomalies by Three-dimensional Ultrasound
Pp. 239-257 (19)
Adilson Cunha Ferreira
Müllerian anomalies are congenital defects of the female reproductive tract
resulting from failure in the development of the Müllerian ducts and their associated
structures. Uterine anomalies are uncommon and are discovered during the investigation of
infertility or premature delivery. The most common müllerian anomaly is the septate
uterus. Identification of the septate uterus depends on the identification of a flat, rounded, or
minimally (<1 cm) concave uterine fundus. Hysterosalpingography identifies two uterine
cavities but is inaccurate for diagnosis of septate versus bicornuate uterus. Hematocolpos is
often caused by an obstructing vaginal septum, usually in association with uterus
didelphys. Three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are both
highly accurate tests for the diagnosis of a Müllerian anomaly. MRI is the preferred test
because the large field of view demonstrates renal anomalies.
Embryonic development, Gynecology, Infertility, Laparoscopy,
Müllerian ducts, Urogenital abnormalities.
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