Assessment of Fetal Heart by Three- and Four- Dimensional Ultrasound
Pp. 63-72 (10)
Giuseppe Rizzo and Domenico Arduini
The aim of this review was to determine whether three-dimensional (3D) and
four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography adds diagnostic information to what is currently
provided by two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of the most
common congenital structural defects, namely congenital heart disease. Recent studies
suggested that 3D/4D US allows to decrease operator dependency in the visualization of
standard diagnostic planes, thus reducing the examination time required for the
ultrasound screening examination, with minimal consequences on the imaging quality
of the anatomical structures. Furthermore, sonographers with lack of experience may
acquire cardiac volumes that can be successfully reviewed offline locally or sent by
internet to referral centers for remote review by an observer with more experience. As a
consequence 3D/4D US promises to become the method of choice for the diagnosis of
congenital structural defects.
Congenital heart diseases, Four-dimensional ultrasound, Ultrasound,
Prenatal diagnosis, Three-dimensional ultrasound.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universita Roma Tor Vergata, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli Isola Tiberina, Rome, Italy.