Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide despite significant advances
in surgery and biology. Several recent studies have suggested that there is a close
connection between tumorigenesis and inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a
link between inflammation and cancer, was proposed as a prime target for cancer
therapy. However, the main available COX-2 inhibitors, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs), have several side effects that limit their application
in cancer treatment. Additional research is needed to identify drugs that can regulate
COX-2 or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with greater efficacy. Understanding the
mechanism of COX-2/PGE2-mediated cancer and inflammation would be very
useful for successful drug development. Progress of research and development into
the role of COX related signaling both in inflammation and tumorigenesis in recent years has been
summarized and introduced in this paper. Novel drugs designed to inhibit COX-2-related cancers are
discussed to provide references for further development of novel drugs.
Keywords: Cancer, COX-2, Cyclooxygenase, Inflammation, Oncology, PGE2.
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