Affordable and efficient water treatment process to produce water free from
various contaminants is a big challenge. The presence of toxic heavy metals, dyes, hazardous chemicals
and other toxins causes contamination of water sources and our food chain and make them hazardous to
living organisms. The current water treatment processes are no longer sustainable due to high cost and
low efficiency. Due to advantageous properties, nanotechnology based materials can play a great role in
increasing the efficiency of water treatment processes. Magnetic nanocomposites use nano as well as
magnetic properties and have the potential to provide a sophisticated system to overcome most of the
impurities present in water. There is a diversity of magnetic nanocomposites, however presently we
have focussed the core-shell magnetic nanocomposites because they have excellent magnetic and separation
properties, stability, and good biocompatibility.
Methods: We collected systematically the bibliographic data bases for peer-reviewed research literature
focusing on the theme of our review. The quality of the included research papers are selected by standard
tools. A conceptual frame work is designed to arrange the topics and extracted the interventions
and findings of the included studies.
Results: The overall study was divided into sections and each section incorporated the most appropriate
literature citation. Total one hundred and eight references were included of which 32 references were
used for basic description/introduction of core-shell magnetic nanocomposites. One review paper containing
the synthesis methods for core shell magnetic nanocomposites is included while majority (76) of
the references are included for comprehensive description of applications of the core-shell nanocomposites
among which 25 were for dyes removal, 27 for hazardous metals, 07 for hazardous chemicals, 12
for pesticides and biological contaminants removal and five other including patents were added as miscellaneous
substances removal from water sources. This review identified the effective role of core-shell
magnetic nanocomposites for environmental remediation in terms of removal of various hazardous substances
from water resources.
Conclusion: The outcome of the present review confirms that the magnetic core-shell nanocomposites
provide a cost effective and efficient way for the removal of various toxic substances including dyes,
heavy metals, toxic organic chemicals, pesticides and some biological contaminants from water sources.