Objectives:-To examine the effect of nicotine (Ni) on bone socket healing treated with Ellagic acid (EA)
after tooth extraction in rat. Materials and Methods: Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into
four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously.
The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups
3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained
Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA
while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats
from each group were sacrificed on 14th and 28th days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6
(IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28th days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
(TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized
gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14th and 28th days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical
technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers. Results:
Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly
when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). Ni-induced rats administrated with EA compound (Group 4) showed significant
production of SOD and recession in TBRAS level when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). The immunohistochemistry
analysis has revealed that OCN and ALP have presented stronger expression in Ni-induced rats treated with EA (Group 4), as
against Ni-induced rats (Group 3). Conclusion: We have concluded that, Ni-induced rats, treated with EA have exerted positive effect on
the trabecular bone formation after tooth extraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate
of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.
Keywords: Nicotine, Ellagic Acid, Rat, Tooth Extraction, Osteocalcin, Alkaline Phosphatase.
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