Virtual Screening Techniques to Probe the Antimalarial Activity of some Traditionally Used Phytochemicals

Author(s): Indira G. Shibi , Lilly Aswathy , Radhakrishnan S. Jisha , Vijay H. Masand , Jayant M. Gajbhiye .

Journal Name: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening

Volume 19 , Issue 7 , 2016

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Abstract:

Malaria parasites show resistance to most of the antimalarial drugs and hence developing antimalarials which can act on multitargets rather than a single target will be a promising strategy of drug design. Here we report a new approach by which virtual screening of 292 unique phytochemicals present in 72 traditionally important herbs is used for finding out inhibitors of plasmepsin-2 and falcipain-2 for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum. Initial screenings of the selected molecules by Random Forest algorithm model of Weka using the bioassay datasets AID 504850 and AID 2302 screened 120 out of the total 292 phytochemicals to be active against the targets. Toxtree scan cautioned 21 compounds to be either carcinogenic or mutagenic and were thus removed for further analysis. Out of the remaining 99 compounds, only 46 compounds offered drug-likeness as per the ‘rule of five’ criteria. Out of ten antimalarial drug targets, only two target proteins such as 3BPF and 3PNR of falcipain-2 and 1PFZ and 2BJU of plasmepsin-2 are selected as targets. The potential binding of the selected 46 compounds to the active sites of these four targets was analyzed using MOE software. The docked conformations and the interactions with the binding pocket residues of the target proteins were understood by ‘Ligplot’ analysis. It has been found that 8 compounds are dual inhibitors of falcipain-2 and plasmepsin-2, with the best binding energies. Compound 117 (6aR, 12aS)-12a-Hydroxy-9-methoxy-2,3-dimethylenedioxy-8-prenylrotenone (Usaratenoid C) present in the plant Millettia usaramensis showed maximum molecular docking score.

Keywords: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, virtual screening, weka, ADME, molecular operating environment, molecular docking.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2016
Page: [572 - 591]
Pages: 20
DOI: 10.2174/1386207319666160420141200
Price: $58

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