Background: Recent advances in the field of bionanomedicine not only enable us to produce
biomaterials but also to manipulate them at molecular level. Viruses particularly bacteriophages
are a promising nanomaterial that can be functionalized with great precision. Bacteriophages are the
natural antimicrobial agents that fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria which cause infections in
animals, humans, or in crops of agricultural value. The idea of utilizing bacteriophages as therapeutic
agents is due to their ability to kill bacteria at the end of the infectious cycle.
Objective: This paper reviewed the general biology of bacteriophages and the presence of receptors
on the bacteria which are necessary for the recognition and adsorption of bacteriophages. Pharmacokinetics
and therapeutic potential of bacteriophages administered through various routes in treating
diverse bacterial infections is also reviewed along with the problems associated with bacteriophage
Conclusion: Among various routes of administration, parenteral route is found to be the most thriving
route for the treatment of systemic infections whereas oral route is meant to treat gastrointestinal infections
and; local delivery (skin, nasal, ears) of phages has proven its potency to treat topical infections.