Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal disease among gynecologic
malignancies. Despite increasing knowledge of ovarian cancer biology and advances in treatment
efficacy, the survival rate of patients with EOC has not improved over the past two decades. Patients
with an advanced disease often relapse due to the development of chemoresistance. Recent in vivo
and in vitro studies have shown insight into the mechanisms of such drug resistance, including a
potential role for microRNAs (miRNA, miR) in the process of chemoresistance. In this review, we provide an overview of
current therapeutic targets of miRNA-associated chemoresistance in EOC and discuss potential therapeutic values and
molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs influence the development and reversal of chemoresistance.
Keywords: Ovarian cancer, relapse, drug resistance, miRNA target, oncogene, tumor suppressor.
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