Phytometabolites Targeting Warburg Effect in Cancer Cells: A Mechanistic Review
Chung Yeng Looi,
Ashok Kumar Pandurangan,
Won Fen Wong,
Mohd Rais Mustafa.
Phytometabolites are functional elements derived from plants and most of them exhibit therapeutic values such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect. Phytometabolites exert their anti-cancer effect by targeting multiple signaling pathways. One of the remarkable phenomenons targeted by phytometabolites is Warburg effect. Warburg effect describes the observation that cancer cells exhibit increase rate of glycolysis and aberrant redox activity compare to normal cells. This phenomenon promotes further cancer development and progression. Recent observations revealed that some phytometabolites could target metabolic-related enzymes (e.g. Hexokinase, Pyruvate kinase M2, HIF-1) in cancer cells, with little or no harm to normal cells. Since hyper-proliferation of cancer cells is fueled by higher cellular metabolism, hence, phytometabolites targeting these metabolic pathways can create synergistic crosstalk with induced apoptotic pathways and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss about phytometabolites that target Warburg effect and the underlying molecular mechanism that leads to tumor growth suppression.
Keywords: Cancer, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, phytometabolites, redox activity, warburg effect
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