From Mars to Venus: Gender Differences in the Management and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndromes

Author(s): Nigel S. Tan, Andrew T. Yan.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 22 , Issue 25 , 2016

Abstract:

Ischemic heart disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations, and contributes substantially to healthcare expenditure worldwide. As the evidence base in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has expanded dramatically over decades, longitudinal data demonstrate improvements in risk factor modification, organization of healthcare systems, and disease management that have substantially attenuated the adverse prognosis of both ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STsegment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). Nevertheless, discrepancies remain between genders, and women with ACS often sustain worse outcomes than men. In this review, we focus on the gender and sex-specific commonalities and differences in the pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and risk stratification of ACS. We highlight available data on the interactions between gender and efficacy of current pharmacological and interventional treatment for NSTE-ACS and STEMI. We also examine gender differences in the trends of clinical outcomes, and possible mechanisms that account for persistent care gaps where future efforts can be directed.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndromes, gender, outcomes, risk stratification, trends.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 25
Year: 2016
Page: [3790 - 3801]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160328113831
Price: $58

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