Background: In recent decades, the interest in behavioral interventions has been growing due to
the higher prevalence of age-related cognitive impairments. Hence, behavioral interventions, such as
cognitive stimulation and physical activity, and along with these, our lifestyle (education level, work
position, frequency of cognitive and social activities) have shown important benefits during the cognitive
impairment, dementia and even recovery after brain injury. This is due to the fact that this type of
intervention and activities promote the formation of a cognitive and brain reserve that allows tolerating
brain damage during a long period of time without the appearance of cognitive symptoms. With regard to
this, animal models have proved very useful in providing information about the brain mechanisms involved
in the development of these cognitive and brain reserves and how they interact with each other.
Methods: We summarize several studies showing the positive effects of Environmental Enrichment
(EE), understood as a housing condition in which animals benefit from the sensory, physical, cognitive
and social stimulation provided, on brain and cognitive functions usually impaired during aging.
Results: Most of studies have shown that EE is a successful protocol to improve cognitive functions and
reduce anxiety-related behaviors across the lifespan, as well as in animal models of neurodegenerative
Conclusion: Therefore, EE is a laboratory condition in which some aspects of an active lifestyle are